Mt. Gox

Mt. Gox, called "Mount Gox" or simply "Gox", was the most widely used bitcoin currency exchange market from shortly after its inception in 2010 to its insolvency late 2013. The market was closed February 25, 2014 and has since filed for bankruptcy protection in Japan and the United States, after losing 640 thousand bitcoins. A registrant on Mt. Gox had at least two sub-accounts: one for bitcoins (BTC), and one for fiat currency. Bitcoins were bought using funds from the trader's fiat account, and the proceeds from the sale of bitcoins were deposited into the same account. Trading always involved bitcoins as trading between different national currencies was not offered. Trades on Mt. Gox's executed from balances on deposit with the exchange which in turn made trading on the market instantaneous, compared to most other Bitcoin markets of 2010 where a subsequent settlement occurred manually between the trading partners. The disadvantage of this was that a third party had to be trusted with keeping the money safe.

Miner

To form a distributed timestamp server as a peer-to-peer network, bitcoin uses a proof-of-work system. This work is often called bitcoin mining. Requiring a proof of work to accept a new block to the blockchain was Satoshi Nakamoto's key innovation. The mining process involves identifying a block that, when hashed twice with SHA-256, yields a number smaller than the given difficulty target. While the average work required increases in inverse proportion to the difficulty target, a hash can always be verified by executing a single round of double SHA-256. For the bitcoin timestamp network, a valid proof of work is found by incrementing a nonce until a value is found that gives the block's hash the required number of leading zero bits. Once the hashing has produced a valid result, the block cannot be changed without redoing the work. As later blocks are chained after it, the work to change the block would include redoing the work for each subsequent block. Majority consensus in bitcoin is represented by the longest chain, which required the greatest amount of effort to produce. If a majority of computing power is controlled by honest nodes, the honest chain will grow fastest and outpace any competing chains.

Market Capitalization

Market capitalization describes the total value of all available assets of one cryptocurrency or a token. Market capitalization (market cap) is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares. Market capitalization is equal to the share price multiplied by the number of shares outstanding. As outstanding stock is bought and sold in public markets, capitalization could be used as an indicator of public opinion of a company's net worth and is a determining factor in some forms of stock valuation. Market capitalization is used by the investment community in ranking the size of companies, as opposed to sales or total asset figures.

Merkle Tree

In cryptography and computer science, a hash tree or Merkle tree is a tree in which every leaf node is labelled with the cryptographic hash of a data block, and every non-leaf node is labelled with the cryptographic hash of the labels of its child nodes. Hash trees allow efficient and secure verification of the contents of large data structures. Hash trees are a generalization of hash lists and hash chains.

Market Cap

Market capitalization describes the total value of all available assets of one cryptocurrency or a token. Market capitalization (market cap) is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares. Market capitalization is equal to the share price multiplied by the number of shares outstanding. As outstanding stock is bought and sold in public markets, capitalization could be used as an indicator of public opinion of a company's net worth and is a determining factor in some forms of stock valuation.

Mining Pool

Mining pools may contain hundreds or thousands of miners using specialized protocols. In all these schemes B stands for a block reward minus pool fee and p is a probability of finding a block in a share attempt (p = 1/D, where D is current block difficulty). A pool can support "variable share difficulty" feature, which means that a miner can select the share target (the lower bound of share difficulty) on his own and change p accordingly. The list of pools for mining is extensive – in the world there are more than a thousand. The vast majority of users work through bitcoin pools. The level of complexity of the production of this currency is so high that alone, even with a supercomputer profit is not obtained. Therefore, all new pools are formed. There are other cryptocurrencies, younger than bitcoin, which are faster and easier to mine. But they do not have real value in the network, and they can only earn with the hope that in the future their rate will grow, and this is more like speculative mining.

Mining

Bitcoin mining is the process of making computer hardware do mathematical calculations for the Bitcoin network to confirm transactions and increase security. As a reward for their services, Bitcoin miners can collect transaction fees for the transactions they confirm, along with newly created bitcoins. Mining is a specialized and competitive market where the rewards are divided up according to how much calculation is done. Not all Bitcoin users do Bitcoin mining, and it is not an easy way to make money.